Blood pressure is the force of blood against the walls of arteries. Blood pressure is recorded as two numbers—the systolic pressure (as the heart beats) over the diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats). The measurement is written one above or before the other, with the systolic number on top and the diastolic number on the bottom. For example, a blood pressure measurement of 120/80 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury) is expressed verbally as "120 over 80."
Diuretics are sometimes called "water pills" because they work in the kidney and flush excess water and sodium from the body. This reduces the amount of fluid in the blood. There are different types of diuretics. They are often used with other high blood pressure drugs.
Beta blockers reduce nerve impulses to the heart and blood vessels. This makes the heart beat slower and with less force. Blood pressure drops and the heart works less hard. ATENOLOL is a Beta Blocker.
CCBs keep calcium from entering the muscle cells of the heart and blood vessels. This causes the blood vessels to relax and pressure goes down. AMLODIPINE is a Calcium Channel Blocker.
Alpha blockers reduce nerve impulses to blood vessels, which allows blood to pass more easily, causing the blood pressure to go down.
According to results from an NHLBI clinical study, an alpha blocker may not be the best choice for initial treatment for uncomplicated high blood pressure.
Alpha-beta blockers work the same way as alpha blockers but also slow the heartbeat, as beta blockers do. As a result, less blood is pumped through the vessels and the blood pressure goes down.
Nervous system inhibitors relax blood vessels by controlling nerve impulses. This causes the blood vessels to become wider and the blood pressure to go down.
Vasodilators directly open blood vessels by relaxing the muscle in the vessel walls, causing the blood pressure to go down.
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors prevent the formation of a hormone called angiotensin H, which normally causes blood vessels to narrow. The ACE inhibitors cause the vessels to relax & blood pressure goes down.
Anti-Platelet ,also called Anticoagulant drugs are medicines that prevent the clotting of blood.
Anticoagulant drugs help prevent the formation of harmful clots in the blood vessels by decreasing the blood's ability to clump together. Although these drugs are sometimes called blood thinners, they do not actually thin the blood. Furthermore, this type of medicine will not dissolve clots that already have formed, although the drug stops an existing clot from worsening.
Anticoagulant drugs are used in a number of situations. For example, they may be given to prevent blood clots from forming after the replacement of a heart valve or to reduce the risk of a stroke or another heart attack after a first heart attack. They are also used to reduce the chance of blood clots forming during open heart surgery or bypass surgery. Low doses of these drugs may be given to prevent blood clots in patients who must stay in bed for a long time after certain kinds of surgery.
ASPRIN IS THE MOST COMMON ANTI-PLATELET DRUG.
A thrombus is a blood clot that forms in a vessel and remains there. An embolism is a clot that travels from the site where it formed to another location in the body. Thrombi or emboli can lodge in a blood vessel and block the flow of blood in that location depriving tissues of normal blood flow and oxygen. This can result in damage, destruction (infarction), or even death of the tissues (necrosis) in that area.
Angina is a specific type of pain in the chest caused by inadequate blood flow through the blood vessels (coronary vessels) of the heart muscle (myocardium).
A heart attack or acute myocardial infarction occurs when one of the arteries that supplies the heart muscle becomes blocked. Blockage may be caused by spasm of the artery or by atherosclerosis with acute clot formation. The blockage results in damaged tissue and a permanent loss of contraction of this portion of the heart muscle.